||2.1 Computer Vision Syndrome
Computer vision syndrome symptoms include eye fatigue, which can
make you feel tired. If you use a computer regularly, you may
suffer from Computer Vision Syndrome, simply refers to problem
of eyes and vision associated with computer use. You can take
preventive measures to alleviate your symptoms so they don't get
The most common symptoms of CVS include eyestrain
or eye fatigue, dry eyes, burning eyes, light sensitivity, blurred
vision, headaches and pain in the shoulders, neck or back. CVS
can have multiple causes, so solutions offered are acoordingly,
to free yourself of painful symptoms.
Problems with your eyes (eyestrain, dry eyes, burning
and light sensitivity) during computer use can result from:
* insufficient tear flow to the eyes,
* too much glare and reflection on the monitor,
* monitor settings that are hard on the eyes and needing glasses
(for the first time, or a new pair).
When you don't blink enough, your eyes can become
dried out and irritated.
You actually blink two-thirds less than usual when you're looking
at a computer. You also tend to open your eyes wider, which increases
the dryness. The position and intensity of your room lighting
and your monitor can also affect your eyes.
||2.2 Bones helps good
Vitamin D: What is it?
Vitamin D, calciferol, is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is found in
food, but also can be made in your body after exposure to ultraviolet
rays from the sun. The major biological function of vitamin D
is to maintain normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus.
Vitamin D aids in the absorption of calcium, helping to form and
maintain strong bones. It promotes bone mineralization in concert
with a number of other vitamins, minerals, and hormones. Without
vitamin D, bones can become thin, brittle, soft, or misshapen.
Vitamin D prevents rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults,
which are skeletal diseases that result in defects that weaken
What are the sources of vitamin D?
Food sources : Fortified foods are the major dietary sources of
vitamin D. Prior to the fortification of milk products, rickets
(a bone disease seen in children) was a major public health problem.
One cup of vitamin D fortified milk supplies about one-fourth
of the estimated daily need for this vitamin for adults. Although
milk is fortified with vitamin D, dairy products made from milk
such as cheese, yogurt, and ice cream are generally not fortified
with vitamin D.
Exposure to sunlight
Exposure to sunlight is an important source of vitamin D. Ultraviolet
(UV) rays from sunlight trigger vitamin D synthesis in the skin.
Season, latitude, time of day, cloud cover, smog, and sunscreens
affect UV ray exposure. It is especially important for individuals
with limited sun exposure to include good sources of vitamin D
in their diet.
When can vitamin D deficiency occur?
A deficiency of vitamin D can occur when there is limited exposure
to sunlight, when dietary intake of vitamin D is inadequate, when
the kidney cannot convert vitamin D to its active form, or when
someone cannot adequately absorb vitamin D from the gastrointestinal
tract. In children, vitamin D deficiency causes rickets, which
results in skeletal deformities. In adults, vitamin D deficiency
can lead to osteomalacia, which results in muscular weakness in
addition to weak bones.
Females who cover their body for religious/environmental reasons,
and individuals working in occupations that prevent exposure to
sunlight are at risk of a vitamin D deficiency. If these individuals
are unable to meet their daily dietary need for vitamin D, they
may need a supplement of vitamin D. Individuals who have reduced
ability to absorb dietary fat (fat malabsorption) may need extra
vitamin D because it is a fat soluble vitamin.
Vitamin D and osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by fragile bones. It results
in increased risk of bone fractures. Having normal storage levels
of vitamin D in your body helps keep bones strong and may help
prevent osteoporosis in elderly, non-ambulatory individuals, in
post-menopausal women, and in individuals on chronic steroid therapy.
Normal bone is constantly being remodeled (broken down and rebuilt).
During menopause, the balance between these two systems is upset,
resulting in more bone being broken down than rebuilt. Estrogen
replacement, which limits symptoms of menopause, can help slow
down the development of osteoporosis by stimulating the activity
of cells that rebuild bone.
Vitamin D Deficiency:
Prolonged deficiency of vitamin D results in changes in the bones
of children and adults, and possible hearing loss with aging.
In addition, rickets (in children) and osteomalacia (in adults)
where bones are malformed and weak from poor calcium and phosphorus
deposition. Osteoporosis is another adult disease that results
from a poor dietary vitamin D and calcium intake. Hearing loss
from vitamin D deficiency may progress as the adult ages due to
increased porosity of the cochlea bone in the inner ear. Vitamin
D supplementation usually repairs conditions caused by poor dietary
intake. Prolonged exposure to sunlight does not cause vitamin
The best known activity of vitamin D is its role in maintaining
bone. It functions by increasing the uptake of calcium from the
intestine through interaction with the parathyroid glands in controlling
bone resorption and serum calcium levels. The skeleton is the
body's reservoir of calcium and provides calcium through resorption
of mineral when serum levels of this essential element drop. Vitamin
D also increases reabsorption of phosphate by the kidney tubule,
and may directly affect the osteoblast, the cell which forms bone.
The diet is very low in vitamin D, unless you're consuming fish
liver. Fortified foods, primarily dairy, are our major sources
and may be produced by irradiation or by addition of synthetic
forms of the vitamin. Supplementation with fish liver oils or
extracts of these oils in capsules are important sources, especially
for children or seniors living at higher latitudes and particularly
during fall and winter. A reduced incidence of hip fractures has
been shown for seniors using calcium and vitamin D supplements.
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health, stress during exam time
Concentration : The ability to concentrate varies widely
between individuals. Your ability to concentrate will vary from
day to day depending upon your energy levels, other responsibilities,
degree of interest and involvement with your task. Concentration
span improves with practice.
Before you start each study session: do some body stretches or
exercises to loosen up your body physically; do a brief relaxation
exercise to help clear away unwanted mental distractions. This
will help get you focused. Clarify what you are trying to learn
and why. Work in short bursts rather than in long coffee saturated
sessions. If you find your concentration starting to wander, take
a short break. When you return to your study, review what you
have achieved so far. If after further efforts your concentration
cannot be regained, stop studying and do something else. Before
you stop, decide when your next study session will be and what
you will study.
Health Issues : Even more than other forms of assessment,
the examination process has the potential to lead you to neglect
your health. This is because of the misguided belief held by many
students that in order to prepare adequately for an exam it is
necessary to adjust their lifestyle in a negative fashion in order
to "cram" in as much information as possible. This usually
skipping meals (or not eating proper meals)
interrupting your normal exercise routine
altering your sleep patterns
This usually means that you will become de-energized or even seriously
ill just when you need to be at your peak. To maintain your physical
and mental efficiency, especially around exam time, you will need
to pay attention to several inter-related areas: diet, sleep patterns,
exercise routines, leisure
By maintaining sensible eating, sleeping, exercise and leisure
habits, especially in the lead-up to your exams you will maximize
your chances of maintaining your energy levels, staying healthy,
and enhancing your concentration.
Stress : Feeling 'stressed out' is one of the most common
student complaints. Stress is a normal reaction to the exercise
of our mental and physical capacities.
There are a number of physical symptoms that alert us to a stressful
our heart starts to race, signaling an increase in the production
of adrenalin, our breathing becomes deeper, we are edgier than
usual. It is important to recognise that these symptoms are produced
automatically. They arise whenever we are confronted with a daunting
task that will test our physical and mental capacities - especially
if that task involves something new, unexpected, or unknown.
Fear of the unknown With exams, the fear of the unknown or unexpected
is likely to dominate your thinking. You will probably be asking
yourself questions like:
Will I pass? Do I know enough? Will I be able to remember everything?
What if they ask something, which I do not know?
The more you think about these sorts of questions, the more likely
it will be that your physical response will be an increase in
anxiety leading to increased feelings of being 'stressed out'.
Once you have recognised the onset of rising stress levels, it
is necessary to do something about them, before they affect your
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||2.4 Enhance your
There is no such thing as a "bad memory", it's just
the way you use it to retain information. The more interest you
have in the subject, it is easier to remember. Probably the easiest
way to remember things is to use word association. It is a relatively
easy process to learn and it can enhance your memory greatly.
In order to do this, you will need to create associations with
things you want to remember. Another method is to associate the
person's name with something distinctive about them. Can you see
the association in your mind? Did your math teacher ever make
your class repeat the multiplication tables in grade school? The
voice simply went through the entire multiplication tables, from
one to twelve. The voice said sentences like, "Twelve times
one is twelve, twelve times two is twenty-four, twelve times three
is thirty-six," and so on. This method of remembering things
you need to keep in your mind is practicing repetition. This is
simply a method in that you repeat the information over and over
and over until it is successfully stored in your memory.
This method works well for remembering many types of information.
Just say whatever it is that you want to remember over and over
in your mind. Or, if you can, repeat the information out loud.
Speaking the information will better help your mind to remember
what it is that your ears are hearing. The topics should be discussed
with classmates, friends or family member. More you vomit out
loudly to others, better for mind to remember.
Expanding your vocabulary with words you will feel comfortable
using for communication. Make a list of subjects that fascinate
you the most. The more you enjoy a topic, the easier to learn
about it. Once you have found a dictionary for one of your favorite
topics, thumb through it looking for words that you have never
heard or words you have heard that you don't know the meanings
of. The sheer joy of having found the words and their meanings
will help them sink into your memory. Since they relate to a favorite
topic, you will likely practice and use them regularly with all
the commitment needed to make them a part of regular conversation.
To make learning easier and more productive, play word games
in a new and more effective way to master several words. Instead
of putting separate words on separate cards with separate meanings.
Pick four words that all have the same or similar meanings and
write them on one side with their meanings clearly identified
on the other. Since you will be learning the same or very closely
related word meanings for four words, you will be learning four
words and one definition with slightly subtle changes.
You learn much more by being humble than by being proud. Just
as when driving you should be willing to stop and ask for directions,
you shouldn't be afraid to do some digging when there's a word
you don't understand. Look it up or even have the courage to ask.
Go on a word hunt. Write down what you didn't understand and quickly.
Hound that word and its meaning with your own research until you
find it. The satisfaction of victory over your ignorance of that
one word will bolster your confidence that you can learn many
other words if you want to badly enough.
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||2.5 Public speaking
an experience to start
The majority of people list public speaking as their number one
fear. Many of us are called upon to give presentation at work,
address the gathering or even tell a joke at party. How do you
survive such an ordeal? Easily with a little time and practice.
The most important in public speaking is to know some thing about
the subject. Many times speakers don't have a clear idea of what
they want to convey to their audience. You need to know exactly
what you want your audience to come away with. Once you know,
boil that down to three or four points and elaborate on just those
points. You are not a human encyclopedia, too much information
can be just a deadly as not enough while giving a speech.
Practice speaking : Work out what you are going to say
and practice doing it out loud once or twice. It's always a good
idea to time a speech so that you know you will fill your allotted
time slot and don't run out of time. Many times spontaneous words
or idioms will come out during a speech that will surprise you
and delight an audience. You would never want to appear, as if
you're giving the same speech for the 101 times, you will appear
bored and uncaring to your audience.
Dress : Your dress should be appropriate to the occasion
and comfortable. Deciding what you will wear in advance, will
make you confident on the day of the speech.
Be yourself : Some speakers become stiff and deadly serious
and forget that humor can be one of a speakers most important
tools. Don't just regurgitate facts - personal anecdotes and stories
can be a wonderful way to reach out to an audience. Do not put
extra efforts to enact someone. Be yourself.
The audience : An audience has to be there, because they
will listen what you are saying. They want you to do well. Don't
think of an audience as unfriendly or hostile, but think of an
audience as a group of individuals. Try to make eye contact to
one person at a time. But do not get stuck to one or two person
through out your speech. Keep changing your focus slowly to cover
every one. Work with your audience using their responses to carry
you through your speech. You will also not throw up, lose your
pants, forget your name or catch fire. These are all things that
haunt anyone who has to go before a group of people. It's perfectly
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||2.6 Overcome Shyness
Shyness is a feeling of unease to meet and mix with people - especially
those whom we don't know or with whom we don't feel secure. It
is a common complaint. Most of us felt shy at some time in our
life, and some of us are continue to feel so. The body and mind
reflect actions may result into :-downcast eyes, increased heart
beat, loss of words, slip of tongue, loss of composure, pain in
vertebra, perspiration etc..
To overcome shyness it is important to understand the individual
problem. Shyness, is not a physical problem, but rather more of
attitude & belief about self and others. It is an imaginary
vision about what others are going to think about. We think that
others are making negative observation about us. We think that
we are not as good as others. We fear that things may go wrong,
and so become tense. The negative thoughts feeds our insecurity
and the problem spirals.
Our mind wonders that others may think that we are stuck-up,
unfriendly or even uncaring or ignorant. The fact is that we become
so preoccupied in own feelings that unable to pay sufficient attention
to environment. Because we are afraid to speak up and express
the true feelings and opinions, which deprive us to many of the
joys of life. By putting forth the time and effort, we can overcome
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